INCL-LEA-T (Inclusive Learning Teachers’ perspective)

Author(s) Univ.-Prof. Mag. Mag. Dr. Susanne Schwab, Bakk. MA; Dr. Katharina-Theresa Lindner, BEd, Mag. Julia Kast, Dr. Rupert Corazza, Dr. Marie Gitschthaler, Alexandra Gutschik, BEd,
Institution(s) University of Vienna, Centre for Teacher Education

Susanne Schwab,

Alexandra Gutschik,

Maybe further partner(s)

Students: Christina Maria Eder, Martina Marleku

Theoretical framework/approach Inclusion, self-efficacy, at-risk students
Research questions
Inclusive Home Learning – How has school closure impacted teachers‘ perceptions of their daily school life? What challenges and benefits have they identified in relation to their own self-efficacy and the students? How do teachers perceive the performance of so-called at-risk students (special education needs, low socioeconomic status, low proficiency in the language of instruction) during home learning?
Themes / topics
Home learning, perception of school life, use of digital media, feedback, emotional states, at-risk students, inclusion, self-efficacy.
Main findings of study / highlights
  • on average about 9.6% of the students have no and about 26.1% rather insufficient opportunities to follow instruction from home
  • percentage of students with inadequate digital equipment was significantly higher in classes with students who had little knowledge of the instruction language and in special education classes.
  • lack of social contact is seen as a major challenge in the course of school closure
  • teachers stated that the development of students in distance learning also depended on the received support from their parents
  • 4% of teachers rather agreed that they personally feel strongly burdened during distance learning
  • As an advantage, teachers reported that they were increasingly considering the individual situation of their students
Methods quantitative online questionnaire with qualitative open-ended questions at the end
Analytic Appraoch deskriptiv, explorativ, explanativ, kausal
Desig of data collection

Online questionnaire via Lime Survey, duration approx.. 30 Minutes, use of existing and newly developed scales

Time(s) of data collection T1: 20th April 2020 – 08th May 2020 T2: 23rd November 2020 – 15th of January 2021
Kind of sampling, kind and number of sample

The questionnaire was sent out to school principals in federal states in which the local school authority had agreed to participation. T1: 3 467 teachers T2: 1 819 teachers (as of 28.11.2020)

Geographical area Austria

Kast, J., Lindner, K.-T., Gutschik, A., & Schwab, S. (2021) Teachers‘ Attitudes and Self-Efficacy Beliefs Regarding at-risk Students During Home-learning Due to COVID-19. European Journal of Special Needs Education.
Schwab, S. & Lindner, K.-T. (2021). Auswirkungen von Schulschließungen und Homeschooling während des ersten österreichweiten Lockdowns auf Bildungsungleichheit. WISO, 43(4).
Others in preparation

Project website

Further information
Repository Factsheet