|Author(s)||Christoph Helm Alexandra Postlbauer|
|Institution(s)||Johannes Kepler University Lin, Linz School of Education, Department of Education|
|Maybe further partner(s)|
Parent Association Lower Austria
|Theoretical framework/approach||The first systematic review on teaching and learning during corona-related distance learning (N = 97 studies; Helm, Huber & Loisinger, 2020) reveals that central aspects of teaching and learning during corona-related school closures (such as characteristics of distance learning and characteristics of home resources for learning) have already been investigated many surveys in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. However, the review also emphasizes that there is still little scientific knowledge about the situation of educationally disadvantaged students (with a migration background, from different ethnic groups, from educationally deprived backgrounds) during Corona, as these are particularly difficult to capture with online surveys. Furthermore, with the exception of Schönherr & Zandonella (2021), there is a lack of evidence regarding the situation of parents with school-aged children during the third school closure. The theoretical mechanisms explaining the emergence of educational inequalities due to school closures during the Corona pandemic are manifold. The main argument that is repeatedly referred to (Dietrich et al., 2020; Grewenig et al., 2020; Huber & Helm, 2020; Frohn, 2020) is that parents are now more strongly than before in charge of the learning of their children. The responsibility for the educational processes of children is now almost entirely shifted from the school to the parents. As a result, home and family resources and conditions for independent learning at home are becoming more important in distance education than they have been in traditional in-person education. Theoretical models of homework practice postulate that the parental role during homework supervision as well as the home situation/domestic resources in general (e.g. socio-economic status of learners, equipment at home) strongly influence the quality and success of distance learning processes. Two prominent models in the literature are the homework model (Trautwein et al. 2006) and the process model of homework effectiveness (Kohler 2011). These models of homework research seem to cover all the main aspects of distance learning due to their supply-use logic. What they lack is the role of technology in the teaching-learning process. Therefore, this study is based on an integrative model that extends the homework model by theories of distance education and e-education.|
(1) To what extent were pupils from low socio-economic families particularly disadvantaged during the school closures?
(2) Is there evidence of a scissor effect? I.e., did the disadvantage of socio-economically worse-off pupils increase due to the school closures?
(3) How does Austria compare to Germany in these questions?
|Themes / topics|
3rd School lockdown, Distance Learning, Representativeness/Representativity, Replication Study
|Main findings of study / highlights|
The reported proportions are almost universally more pronounced to the disadvantage of parents of lower-performing children. Parents without and with academic qualifications, on the other hand, often do not differ significantly.
|Desig of data collection|
Online questionnaire, partial replication of the representative parent survey by Wößmann et al. (2020), recruitment of parents via the market research institute respondi and additional distribution via the parent association in Austria.
|Time(s) of data collection||February 2021|
|Kind of sampling, kind and number of sample|
3590 parents from all federal states of Austria
„Convenience sample“ of parents of school-aged students – compulsory schools (primary school, secondary school), lower and upper grades of general secondary schools (e.g. Real-, Gymnasium), vocational secondary schools (e.g., HAS, HAK, FW, HLW, HTL), and vocational schools.
Helm, C. & Postlbauer, A. (2021). JKU-Bildungsbarometer #1. Schule im 3. Lockdown. 1. Bericht zur repräsentativen Elternumfrage in Österreich. Linz: Johannes Kepler Universität, School of Education. DOI: 10.35011/jbb.2021-1.